Butter is a smooth, fatty substance made by churning cream (most often the cream from cow’s milk). The churning causes the fat in the cream to separate from the liquid, which produces butter. The remaining liquid is known as buttermilk.
Ghee is the traditional Sanskrit word for clarified butter (e.g., butter that has the milk solids and water removed). Having no milk solids, ghee has a longer shelf life and can be heated to much higher temperatures than butter without burning.
Coconut and palm oils
Coconut and palm oil are called the “tropical fats.” These oils contain a significant amount of the saturated fatty acid, palmitic acid. Coconut and palm oils are staples in the traditional diet of the Polynesian countries, where they are eaten in their natural state. However, in the United States, these oils are used primarily in the manufacturing of processed foods, and are not readily available for use in home-food preparation.
Lard and beef tallow
Lard and beef tallow are the fats derived from pigs and cows, respectively. These products are used in food manufacturing and, to a lesser extent, in home-food preparation.